Posts tagged Weaving
Swatching with Cotton Fine: A woven Sampler in Plain-Weave
Loom & Spindle - Cotton Fine Swatch at 10epi-14.jpg

Swatching with Cotton Fine

A woven Sampler in Plain-Weave

With the recent introduction of Cotton Fine to the Loom & Spindle yarn range, we’ve been excited to explore our new yarn.

Our first swatch is a woven sampler in plain-weave, woven at a sett of 40ends/10cm (10epi) on a rigid heddle loom.

Our aim was to explore the fabric’s hand-feel, interaction of colour and the effect of using a finishing technique to full the fabric and set the fibres.

We’ve detailed the project below to offer insight into our planning and methodology, and our thoughts on the resulting fabric. This recipe is a great starting point if you want to have a go at swatching for your next weaving project!

Loom & Spindle - Cotton Fine Swatch at 10epi-16.jpg


A woven sampler in plain-weave, woven at 40ends/10cm (10epi), using Cotton Fine By Brown Sheep Co.

Loom & Spindle - Cotton Fine Swatch at 10epi-3.jpg


Weave a plain-weave fabric in Cotton Fine to explore:

  • The fabric’s hand-feel at a sett of 40ends/10cm (10epi)

  • The interaction of colour when using three shades; and

  • The effect of using a finishing technique to full the fabric / set the fibre.


  • Calculating yardage

  • Warping a rigid heddle loom

  • Preparing the warp for weaving

  • Hem stitching, to secure the warp and weft

  • Balanced plain-weave




As the materials and tools were pre-established, planning was limited to determining an appropriate size for the sample, approximating the metreage required, and defining colour placement. 


It was determined that a sample size of 30cm x 45cm (12"x 18") would be sufficient to examine hand-feel, colour interaction and allow for any shrinkage that may occur during finishing.


  • Length of piece, 45cm + extra length for warping, 60cm (30cm each end)
    Total warp length, 105cm

  • Warp width, 30cm X No. warp ends at 40ends/10cm
    Total no. warp ends, 120

  • Metreage required for warp:

= No. warp ends x Total warp length
= 120 x 1.05m
= 12600cm or 126m


  • At 40ends/10cm, No. weft passes over 45cm = 180

  • Metreage required for weft:

= No. weft passes x Warp width
= 180 x 30cm
= 5400cm or 54m


  • Total metreage required

= Warp + Weft
= 126m + 54m
= 180m


  • The placement of colour was kept simple, the three colours being divided in blocks evenly across both warp and weft.

  • Warp, 40 ends per colour

  • Weft, 60 ends per colour (or 15cm of length, per colour)


  • These calculations tell us that at 196m per skein, one ball of Cotton Fine would be enough to make a sample of this size. 

  • As the plan was to use three colours in equal quantities in this piece, we divided the total metreage by three to determine the amount for each colour, 180m divided by 3 = 60m per colour.



The rigid heddle loom was warped and colours placed as per the planning notes.

Loom & Spindle - Cotton Fine Swatch at 10epi-9.jpeg
Loom & Spindle - Cotton Fine Swatch at 10epi-8.jpeg


3cm of ground weave was woven with leftover Cotton Fine to help evenly space and tension the warp.


Weaving began using the first colour in the sequence,.

Once the fabric was established, a row of hem-stitch was used to secure warp and weft at the beginning of the piece. 

Loom & Spindle - Cotton Fine Swatch at 10epi-4.jpg


Weaving continued, changing colours as required until each colour section was completed. 

Once complete, a row of hem-stitch was used to secure warp and weft before cutting the piece from the loom. 

Loom & Spindle - Cotton Fine Swatch at 10epi-5.jpg


The sample was finished by undergoing a full wash cycle in a washing machine and dried in a tumble dryer using a regular heat setting.

This treatment contradicts the recommended care instructions for Cotton Fine, but we thought this experiment was warranted to help set the weave and allow the fibres to bloom.



The resulting fabric has a great lightness and after finishing is quite soft to the touch. 

At this sett, the fabric feels smooth and has excellent drape. 

Though it’s not a firm weave, the fabric feels like it would be somewhat hard-wearing and have some longevity when used in pieces that will see some wear-and-tear. 


The effect of the bold colour blocking produces a homey fabric and in the chosen colour palette has a somewhat vintage feel. 

Working with three colours allows for endless permutations that can be used to influence the look and feel of the fabric.


From our results we think the fabric would be best suited to household napery and table linens.

The drape suggests that with a bit of fine tuning there is scope to work the fabric into garments, maybe simple summer tees and tunics. 

We would like to experiment next by working the yarn up at a finer gauge with the aim of creating a denser fabric that could be used for towelling applications in the home – washcloths, tea towels, etc.

Loom & Spindle - Cotton Fine Swatch at 10epi-15.jpg

Thank you for reading!

To learn more about Cotton Fine please click HERE.


Let’s Get Started…


How to Weave Soft Transitions Between Two Solid Weft Colours: A Tapestry Workshop
Loom & Spindle - Colour Transitions Tapestry Workshop

Last week we welcomed Woolsey, the first weaving yarn by Loom & Spindle.

But more notably, we welcomed COLOUR to the Loom & Spindle range - 8 glorious shades to be precise!

I’d thought we’d continue our exploration of Woolsey as a weaving yarn with a tapestry workshop in colour transitions.

It’s a technique I developed for working soft transitions between two solid weft colours.

It requires the weaver to visually divide up the area of colour transition and assign a ratio of weft colour to each section.

By determining the metric - how many times per row the weft rises over the warp, we can establish a percentage for each colour that’s to be woven and create the visual effect.

Once the intention of the technique is understood, the technique itself is quite freeform and can be woven without rigid structure.

So, grab a pair of your favourite Woolsey colours and let’s start weaving!

TAPESTRY WORKSHOP: Weaving Colour Transitions


Soften the transition between two solid weft colours by alternating weft threads over the horizontal plane.

SKILLS to practice and develop

  • Plain weave

  • Double half-hitches to secure weft

  • Weft changes using the half-hitch method

  • Maintaining weave sequence while alternating wefts

*To learn more about these skills you might like to check out our book - LINE SHAPE TEXTURE.


  • Make a tapestry sampler that will measure 10 cm x 10cm (or 4" x 4").

  • The set-up will comprise a frame-loom warped with cotton thread at 16 ends over 10cm (4 ends per inch).

  • Establish a ground weave using spare thread to evenly space the warp and provide a firm base to begin the sample.

  • The weft will be secured with a row of double half –hitches at either end.

  • Use half-hitches and weft-floats (behind the work) to manage wefts as the colour transition is worked.




Sketch out and dimension the weaving area, or area of colour transition. I've used our Weaver's Graph Paper (which is available as a free download here) to sketch out the sample.

In this instance, the weaving area is 10cm x 10cm and we’re creating a transition over the horizontal plane. 

Divide the piece into five equal horizontal sections (see diagram below).


Plan out and assign a percentage for each section that will create a uniform transition between colours over the weaving area.

For this workshop, I've chosen a five-section transition to keep the weaving comfortable and percentages to be worked somewhat intuitive.  

Referencing the diagram below, sections 1 and 5 establish the transition colours and will be woven at 100% ‘saturation’.

The actual transition of colour occurs between sections 2, 3 and 4, the percentages for each section are detailed in the diagram below.


Using colour 1 (Yellow), begin the sample by establishing a row of double half-hitches. Ensure each hitch is knotted firmly to secure weft to warp.

Using plain weave, weave in Section 1.

I’ve attached a loop of thread to the warp to mark the end of the section.

Loom & Spindle - Colour Transition Tapestry Workshop


Hold-on to your bobbin, get ready to embrace your numbers…

In STEP 2 we established a colour percentage for each section. We now need to work out how many times the weft will pass over the warp and use this number to translate the percentages to actual weft coverage.

We know that the piece has 16 warp threads, so for each row woven in plain weave the weft will pass over the warp 8 times.

With this information we can convert each colour percentage to the corresponding weft coverage for each row.

This is the formula we use: 

Loom & Spindle - Colour Transitions Tapestry Workshop

Using our formula here are the weft coverage stats for each section: 

Colour Transitions - Diagrams 4.jpg


Armed with our weft coverage stats we can now break away from the scientific method and begin weaving the colour transition with a bit more feeling.

Beginning with Section 2 and utilising the half-hitch method for colour changes, weave-in (maintaining the established weave sequence) the first row by randomly placing two dots of Colour 2 (White).

Then, complete the first row by filling in the remaining sequence with six dots of Colour 1 (Yellow).

Our first row now reflects the colour percentage we specified for Section 2, 75% of dots are Yellow and 25% are White.

Repeat this step, row-by-row, maintaining the colour percentage and complete Section 2.


Continue working the piece row-by-row, changing the percentages of weft colour as you progress through each section.

Again, use a loop of thread or stich marker to mark each section as you progress. 


Once Section 5 has been woven, finish the sample with a row of double half-hitches to secure the fabric.

Cut the piece from the loom and finish as desired.


  • I recommend that you work row-by-row and keep both wefts working in the same direction. This will make it easier to monitor the weave sequence, it can be quite easy to get lost once the second weft colour is introduced.

  • Use the progression of colour in previous rows to influence how you ‘randomly’ place colour in the next row.

  • As we’re using a small amount of Colour 2 in this first progression, it can be handy to use short cut-lengths of weft that wrap (half-hitch) around just one or two warps.

  • Don’t feel bound by the colour percentages, they are a guide. Monitor the fabric and place the colour where it feels right for you. You’ll notice in my sample weft colours clump together, I felt this added to the randomness of the transition and contributed a certain character to the piece.


The length of the colour transition and the frequency at which the weft colour percentages change is highly adaptable.

Ideas for further experimentation might include – working over a much broader area, working in more percentages to progress the colour change more gradually, or perhaps even making the percentages non-linear.

This method is not limited to the horizontal plane either. You could work this technique over almost any angle and with a bit of planning even apply it to more complex rectangular and radial colour transitions.

Oh, so many possibilities!

More experiments await…



Weaving Two-Colour Gradients
Loom & Spindle - Weaving Two-Colour Gradients - 1.jpg

In today’s tutorial I’ll show you a technique for weaving a simple two-colour gradient that you can use to create an ombré effect in your woven pieces.

An ombré effect is created by weaving multiple strands of yarn simultaneously and gradually swapping in a different coloured thread as your weaving progresses.

It is a technique commonly used by tapestry weavers to blend colours or adjust the weight of the weft yarn.

The project I’ve chosen is a simple sampler. My only objective was to experiment with the technique and test how the yarn behaves before applying it in my final piece.

Project: Woven Ombré Sampler


  • Gradually blend two colours across the surface of the fabric to produce an effect reminiscent of ombré.

  • Make a small woven sample to test the effects of colour transitions and to see how the chosen yarn behaves when woven.


  • Plain weave

  • Colour changes – Half-hitch method

  • Building a yarn – see ‘Sampling and ‘Method’ below


My set-up comprised a frame-loom warped to a width of approximately 10cm (4 inches), with 4 warp ends per 2.5cm (4 ends per inch).

I wove in a ground weave using spare warp thread. This helped space the warp and provided a firm base to start weaving.

My plan to secure the warp and weft was to start and finish the piece with a row of double half -hitches.


I decided on a lace weight (2 ply) yarn in two neutral tones that were of similar contrast.

Colour 1: BLUE - Morris Maya Lace Baby Alpaca, #3213 Winter Sky
Colour 2: CREAM  - Morris Maya Lace Baby Alpaca, #3224 Erlicheer


The method relies on grouping a number of strands of lightweight yarns, which are then worked as one weft yarn within the piece.

I tested grouping 8, 10 and 12 strands, weaving a few rows of each yarn to see which would sit best within the warp.

I went with 10 strands as it seemed to fill the space between warps evenly - 8 strands lay too flat, and 12 strands was too bulky. 

I also tested the visual effect of the gradient by swapping-in one or two strands of colour two. I went with a two-strand swap-in as it was more time effective and achieved similar results.


My sampling produced six colours within the gradient of blue to white.

The thread composition of each yarn is as follows: 

  • Yarn 1: 10 strands blue

  • Yarn 2: 8 strands blue, 2 strands white

  • Yarn 3: 6 strands blue, 4 strands white

  • Yarn 4: 4 strands blue, 6 strands white

  • Yarn 5: 2 strands blue, 8 strands white

  • Yarn 6: 10 strands white

To build each weft yarn I measured out ten lengths* of each thread. Holding the strands at one end I carefully wound them on to my bobbin^.

*My lengths were about six arm lengths long, enough for multiple samples.
^A shuttle, weaving needle (for shorter lengths) or winding the yarn into a butterfly would also be appropriate.


Using Yarn 1 (blue), I wove a row of double half-hitches to secure and space the warp.

Continuing in Yarn 1 I wove in seven rows using plain weave. I finished the row and secured the yarn tail using a half-hitch.

Progressing with Yarn 2 I wove another seven rows, hitching-off on the opposite side from which I started – alternating the ‘hitch-on, hitch-off’ point will help space the weft evenly across the face of the fabric.

I continued this pattern, working through each colour change methodically.

On completing the last colour change I used a row of double half-hitches to secure both warp and weft before cutting the piece from the loom. 


No finishing techniques were applied but I might use this sample in the future to test the effects of steam blocking on this particular yarn.

Opportunities for further experimentation

  • I could use this stranding technique to incorporate more lightweight yarns into my work.

  • It opens up a wide range of yarns that could be used in my work, this means more colours and textures to choose from!

  • Blending yarns could be used to introduce subtle colour variations.

  • Possibility to create really interesting colour and texture combinations.

  • Use stranding to create the yarn I want!

For more info on the techniques used in this tutorial, check out our book LINE SHAPE TEXTURE.

You’ll find an in depth discussion on a range of topics, including plain weave and the versatility of the half-hitch.


Outlining Angular shapes with Soumak + FREE Pattern Download

My first book, LINE SHAPE TEXTURE, is very much a technical guide in which I introduce you to the key skills and methods of frame-loom weaving.

Having provided a comprehensive framework, I feel that we can now begin to explore how these various elements come together to create unique woven pieces.

This week we’ll be taking a look at a simple wall-hanging project that uses angular shapes and soumak outlining to create an elegant geometric design.

I've drawn on the Weaver's Methodology to show you the framework I used to develop this project.

You'll find a FREE pattern download at the end of the post so you can recreate this piece for your self!

Intersecting Diamonds - Loom & Spindle


This piece incorporates a geometric design of intersecting diamonds. Outlining with soumak produces a slightly raised surface delivering a subtle relief of the angular shapes.

Intersecting Diamonds - Loom & Spindle


  • Plain weave

  • Forming angular shapes using the diagonal slit method

  • Single (2:1) soumak


The design was roughly sketched on paper and the proportions translated to the weaving area of my loom.


A small piece was woven to test the concept and proportions of the design.

Angular shapes and sumac outlining - Loom & Spindle


The final piece was woven in an off-white acrylic novelty yarn with gold flecks. It was chosen for its calming neutral tone, the gold flecks adding some warmth and interest to the piece.



Simple angular shapes were woven and then outlined using a variation of Oriental soumak.

The soumak variation I used is commonly known as single (2:1) soumak. The ‘2’ in (2:1) refers to the number of warp threads the weft travels over before returning and encircling, in this case,  ‘1’ warp thread.

Single 2-1 Soumak - Loom & Spindle

On completion of each shape, the Soumak stitches were applied to the decreasing slope of the shape (see pattern download).  

Two strands of weft were used for the soumak stitches as this produced a slightly bulkier stitch, allowing the soumak to rise above the plain weave surface. 


Simple steam blocking was used to set the fibres and straighten the edges (see page 53, LINE SHAPE TEXTURE)

Intersecting Diamonds - Loom & Spindle


  • The success of this design really relied on working the decreasing shapes first. I needed to ensure I always had a base on which to apply the soumak outlining.

  • Sketching my design was really useful in working out the order the shapes had to be woven.

  • Knowing the weaving order then helped ensure I was mirroring the design on each side and that the proportions were even as the piece progressed.


To find out more about the skills and techniques used in this project and to learn how to make your own soumak variations check out LINE SHAPE TEXTURE. It’s in store now!

Add To Cart

In my up coming eBook I deconstruct the methods of frame-loom weaving and explore the foundation skills that make up a woven piece.

In my last post I shared an excerpt from the book showing the anatomy of a woven wall hanging.

This week I break down the woven structure even further and present a straightforward recipe for constructing a simple woven piece.

It is a unique method in that the design will be woven upside down and only turned the right way up at the end to add the finishing touches.

It is particularly suited to woven wall art as it results in evenly spaced loops at one end to hang the piece. Though, the method can easily be manipulated to accommodate other projects such as home furnishings or personal accessories.

This tutorial is an excerpt from LINE SHAPE TEXTURE - A Creative's Guide to Frame-Loom Weaving. Download a free sample of our book to read the full excerpt!